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BONE DENSITOMETRY

Bone Density Scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or bone densitometry, is an advanced form of X-Ray technology that is used to measure bone loss. DEXA is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD).

Why DEXA?

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate and advanced test available for measuring bone mass with excellent resolution and reproducible precision. Minimum radiation (less than 1/20 of a chest x-ray) is used to determine the bone density of the spine or hip. A DEXA test is more sensitive than ordinary x-rays, more accurate than radiograms (radiographic absorptiometry) and can diagnose bone loss at an earlier stage. Safe and painless, the 10 minute DEXA scan is the most reliable test to determine even the earliest stages of bone loss associated with osteoporosis.

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis literally means ‘porous bones’. It is a disease where the bones in the body become weak and brittle, so much so that they fracture even due to minimal stress like bending over, cleaning and coughing.

Osteoporosis affects over 6.1 crore Indians- 1 out of 8 men and 1 out of 3 women suffer from osteoporosis, making India one of the largest affected countries in the world.

How does Osteoporosis occur?

The strength of bones depends on the amount of calcium, phosphorous and other minerals that are present in them. Osteoporosis silently depletes the bones of calcium, making them weak and prone to fractures. These fractures occur mostly in the spine, hips and wrists.

Osteoporosis can occur due to several reasons. At menopause, the rate of bone loss in women increases to about 1-3%, thereby increasing their risk of osteoporosis. Bone loss also accelerates in men over 65 years of age. Osteoporosis can also be caused due to endocrinal disorders or from excessive use of certain drugs.

How Osteoporosis can affect your life?

Osteoporosis can leave a person severely incapacitated. People suffering from osteoporosis cannot move freely and experience difficulty in performing routine activities like household cleaning, shopping and travelling. In many cases, the affected person cannot look after oneself and may even need to be admitted in a hospital.

What are the symptoms of Osteoporosis?

There are no symptoms or pain during the early stage of osteoporosis. Once the bones are weakened, the common symptom includes non-specific pain.

How can Osteoporosis be diagnosed?

Early detection is important in order to slow down or prevent osteoporosis. Considering your risk factors, your doctor may recommend a Bone Densitometry (BMD) Test to determine the strength of your bones. In case you are diagnosed with osteoporosis, your doctor will prescribe treatment program that is suited for you.

FAQ'S

What happens during the scan?

There is no special preparation required for the scan. All it involves is the lying on a table, breathing normally. No intravenous injections or oral medication. The intensity of radiation is extremely low. The whole procedure takes about 10 minutes.

Why Physicians Request a DEXA Exam?

To determine your actual bone density and fracture risk.

To reveal early signs of bone loss with the fewest false positive or false negative results.

To diagnose low bone mass that may signal the need for treatment

 


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    ULTRASOUND

    The terms Ultrasonography and Sonography are used interchangeably. Diagnostic sonography (ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing abdomen structures-liver spleen kidneys pancreas gall bladder urinary bladder, the developing fetus, subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible diseased state or lesions.

    This painless diagnostic technique makes use of non-invasive high-frequency sound waves, aimed at areas in the body in order to produce visual images of anatomical structures.

    Uses :

    It is best suited for obtaining images of solid, or uniform soft tissue and fluid-filled tissue.

    Ultrasonography is most commonly used for imaging fetus development during pregnancy.

    Gallbladder disease, kidney stones and evaluating the cause of abdominal pain are the commonest uses.

    High frequency ultrasound is useful for thyroid, neck, scrotal as well as breast examination.

    Useful for early screening and follow up of cancer.

    Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is useful for ladies with gynecological problems, infertility evaluation and follicular monitoring in ovulation studies.

    Advantages:

    Non-invasive

    Fast and accurate diagnosis

     

    Ultrasound Renal or Kidney Ultrasound Drink three to four glasses of water. You may be asked to drink some more water by the doctor scanning you depending case to case scenario. DO NOT empty your bladder unless specified. These imaging studies require a full urinary bladder in order to be able to obtain a successful image. Only early pregnancy patients should hold their urine, after second trimester there is no need to hold urine pressure.

    Pelvis or Lower Abdomen, OG/GYN, Male Lower Ultrasound Studies Drink three to four glasses of water. You may be asked to drink some more water by the doctor scanning you depending case to case scenario. DO NOT empty your bladder. These imaging studies require a full urinary bladder in order to be able to obtain a successful image.

    [In case of pregnancy full bladder is required up to 2 months and in cases of bleeding during pregnancy].

    Upper Abdomen, General Survey Ultrasound Study (Aorta, gall bladder, inferior vena cava, liver, pancreas, retro-peritoneal, spleen) Nothing to eat or drink after midnight the day prior to your US appointment.

    Renal Transplant, Thyroid, and Vascular Ultrasound Studies No preparation is necessary.

    SIEMENS S2000

    The ACUSON S2000™ ultrasound system, HELX™ Evolution with Touch Control was designed with a dedicated focus on General Imaging and Women’s Health. It offers new levels of workflow efficiency, imaging performance and sustainability. The system is Siemens' premium ultrasound system that offers unique solutions, such as elastography imaging.

    *         Clinical Applications:
    Abdominal
    Paediatrics/Neonatal transfontanelle
    Small parts (breast, thyroid, testes, etc)
    Musculoskeletal
    Obstetrics/Gynecology
    Gastroenterology
    Urology
    Rectal
    Adult and paediatric cardiology (as option)
    Vascular
    Transcranial
    Interventional Ultrasound

    *         Whole body elastography.

    *         Advanced Imaging Capabilities:
    HI VISION imaging:
    - Wideband Pulse Inversion Tissue Harmonic Imaging
    - High definition dynamic Tissue Harmonic Imaging
    - HI Com: real-time image compounding
    - HI Rez+ : real-time tissue adaptive filter
    - HI Zoom
    HI Support B and FFT auto-optimisation
    dynamic Contrast Harmonic Imaging
    Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) Mode
    Panoramic Imaging (WideView)
    Real-time Tissue Elastography (RTE)
    4D volume imaging
    Picture in Picture

    GE VOLUSON E8 EXPERT

    Extraordinary vision. Extraordinary patient care.

    Voluson E8 Expert is a premium ultrasound system for your womens healthcare needs, including Obstetrics, Gynecology, Maternal Fetal Medicine. Innovations in image quality, automation, transducer technology, and image analysis help give you the extraordinary vision you need to provide excellent  patient care. The Voluson E8 Expert HD live imaging tool helps bring exceptional realism to ultrasound and the ability to explore fine details in an extraordinary way.

    The Voluson E8 Expert is packed full of innovations to help you see more clearly, work more efficiently and diagnose with more confidence. Voluson ultrasound continues to promote innovation in Volume ultrasound technologies.

    FAQ'S

    What is sonography?

    Sonography, or ultrasound, utilizes high frequency sound waves (not x-rays) to obtain diagnostic images. Ultrasound imaging is used to evaluate many parts of the body, including the abdomen, blood vessels, fetus of pregnant women, superficial body structures, and newborn brain to name only a few. It is absolutely safe in pregnancy and does not use any radiation but only high frequency sound waves

    What is TVS?

    It is a sonography done for better visualisation of uterus & ovaries. A high-resolution endovaginal probe is inserted into the vagina for this examination. It is not painful. It is done as a routine at our centre as it is observed that at times, even fairly prominent lesions can be missed if only trans-abdominal sonography is performed. It does not require a full bladder.

    Is expected date of delivery and weight estimation 100% accurate?

    Expected date of delivery and weight estimation are just estimates based on statistical data of the baby size. It is not 100% accurate but, predicts the dating and weight estimation up to +/- 10%.

    PREPARATIONS

    S.No Investigation Instruction
    1 4D Ultrasound Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. No fasting required.
    2 ABDOMINAL DOPPLER (Liver)
    Bring old records. No fasting required.
    3 BOTH UPPER LIMB (Arterial/Venous) Bring old records. No fasting required.
    4 CAROTID DOPPLER (Both Sides) Bring old records. No fasting required.
    5 FOLLICULAR STUDY(upto 6 studies) No specific preparation. TVS done.
    6 Four Limbs (Arterial and Venous) Bring old records. No fasting required.
    8 GYNE. DOPPLER Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. No fasting required.
    9 KUB + Lower Abd. No Fasting Required. Should be able to hold urine.
    10 KUB/PROSTATE No Fasting Required. Should be able to hold urine.
    11 LOWER ABDOMEN (pelvis) No Fasting Required. Should be able to hold urine.
    12 LOWER ABDOMEN WITH T.V.S. Might have to hold urine.
    13 OBSTETRIC DOPPLER Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. No fasting required.
    14 ONE LIMB (Arterial & Venous) Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. No fasting required.
    17 RENAL DOPPLER Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. Fasting required.
    18
    19 TESTICULAR DOPPLER Bring old records. No fasting required.
    20 TRUS No specific preparation.
    21 TWO LIMB (Arterial OR Venous) Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. No fasting required.
    22 Two LIMBS(Arterial & Venous) Only Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records. No fasting required.
    23 UPPER ABDOMEN Overnight fasting required for gall bladder.
    24 USG BREAST (BOTH) No preparation.
    25 USG Level II Obst. 18-20 weeks of pregnancy.
    26 USG Level I, NT scan + Nasal bone with color Doppler 11-13 weeks 6 days of pregnancy..(best at 12 weeks)
    27 USG Neck No preparation.
    28 USG Neonatal Brain No preparation.
    29 USG Orbits (Both) No preparation.
    30 USG SCROTUM / TESTIS No preparation.
    31 USG Thyroid No preparation.
    32 WHOLE ABDOMEN Overnight Fasting required for gall bladder+ To hold urine pressure for full bladder.

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    OPG & CEPHALOGRAM

    An Orthopantomogram (OPT) or Dental Panoramic Radiograph (DPR) is a scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw.

    The Orthopantomogram is a simple, rapid, and comfortable examination that can provide useful information on a wide variety of pathological processes with less cost and radiation exposure. Only a single exposure is required, during which the x-ray tube makes a sweep about the patient's head.

     


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    MAMMOGRAPHY

    Mammography is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer..

    It is recommended that women with no risk factors for breast cancer have screening mammography’s every 2 years between age 50 and 74. Those with high risk factors (Family history of Breast cancer) require screening mammogram every 2 years after 35 years of age.

    At this time, mammography along with physical breast examination is the modality of choice for screening for early breast cancer. Ultrasound is typically used for further evaluation of masses found on mammography or palpable masses not seen on mammograms.

    Sonography of breast (sonomammography) is more useful than x ray mammography in young female patients in the reproductive age group as dense glandular breast do not allow detection of abnormality on x ray mammogram, sonography is also better in patients where a lump is already palpable as it allows characterization of the mass.

    Benefits

    Imaging of the breast improves a physician's ability to detect smalltumors. When cancers are  small, the woman has more treatment options and a cure is more likely.

    The use of screening mammography increases the detection of small abnormal tissue growths confined to the milk ducts in the breast, called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). These early tumors cannot harm patients if they are removed at this stage and mammography is the only proven method to reliably detect these tumors. It is also useful for detecting all types of breast cancer.

    No radiation remains in a patient's body after an x-ray examination.

    X-rays usually have no side effects in the diagnostic range.

    Advice to patient before Mammography : You MUST bring a copy of your last imaging study with you. Do not use any deodorant, perfume, powder, ointment, or any other skin products on your chest, breast, or under arms on the day of the study. To achieve diagnostic images of the breast, the breast must be firmly compressed. Most women find this compression acceptable. If you experience pain in your breasts then we suggest that you schedule your appointment when your breasts are the least sensitive (usually following the menstrual period).


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    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

    Echo, also known as a cardiac ultrasound, is a painless test that uses sound waves to create moving pictures of your heart. The pictures show the size and shape of your heart. They also show how well your heart's chambers and valves are working.

    Uses:

    Echo can pinpoint areas of heart muscle that aren't contracting well because of poor blood flow or injury from a previous heart attack.

    Echo can detect possible blood clots inside the heart,

    Fluid build-up in the pericardium (the sac around the heart), and problems with major blood vessels that carries oxygen-rich blood from your heart to your body.

    Doctors also use echoes to detect heart problems in infants and children.

    Calculation of the dimensions of the heart, cardiac output as well as ejection fraction.

    Advice to patient: please seek a prior appointment

     


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    Hysterosalpingogram

     What is the HSG test?

    A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is an X-ray test that looks at the inside of your uterus and fallopian tubes, along with the area around them.

    The HSG test is a common diagnostic tool used by your doctor in the course of your fertility treatment. The test can tell the doctor a lot of important information about the causes of your infertility and the best course of action to overcome it. While there are some risks and discomfort associated with the test, most women find that both are manageable. Understanding more about the HSG test will make the procedure easier for you and hopefully help you in conceiving.

    When in my menstrual cycle do I need to have it?

    It needs to be done after you finish your period but before you ovulate. For most people, this means two to five days after their period ends. You have to keep accurate track of your menstrual cycle in order to schedule the procedure. If you are irregular, you need to plan with your doctor when to schedule the HSG.

    Is it painful? What pain medication can I have?

    Many patients report that during the test, you will experience cramping that is similar in pain level to your menstrual cramps. Some doctors advice pain medication. You will be given antispasmodic before the HSG.

    Are there any risks associated with the procedure?

    The likelihood of complications is extremely rare, but there are a few to consider. Very few women can develop a pelvic infection, endometritis or salpingitis which will require antibiotics. Women could have an allergic reaction to the X-ray dye. Once again, however, these complications are all very rare.

    ADVICE TO PATIENT:

    Patients must be scheduled within the first 10 days of their menstruation, beginning with and including the first day of the menses.

     


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    DIGITAL XRAY

    CR is a form of X-ray imaging, where X-rays images are captured on special cassettes and subsequently modified on the computer before giving the film which is processed by digital cameras. Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Also less radiation can be used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography.

    Advantages of immediate image preview and availability; elimination of costly film processing steps; a wider dynamic range, which makes it more forgiving for over- and under-exposure; as well as the ability to apply special image processing techniques that enhance overall display of the image.

    List of X-Rays:-  Chest, Abdomen, KUB, Spine AP/Lateral, PNS, Adenoids, Extremities, Joints

    Procedures done under image intensifier :

    S.No Investigation Instruction
    1 BARIUM ENEMA (DOUBLE CONTRAST)
    • Fasting Required with bowel prepration (Dulcolax 2+ Charcoal 4 the previous night).
    • Low residue diet starts at 24 hours before the scheduled exam time.
    2 BARIUM MEAL UGI Fasting Required.
    3 BARIUM SWALLOW No prepration. Bring old records.
    4 BARIUM MEAL FOLLOW THROUGH (BMFT) Overnight fasting
    5 H.S.G. Bring old records. 4 hrs. fasting.
    6 I.V.P. Non-Ionic Contrast Fasting Required with bowel prepration (Dulcolax 2+ Charcoal 4 the previous night).
    7 MCU Prior Appointment preferred.  Patient to be catheterised before study. Bring old records.
    8 RGU Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records.
    9 SINOGRAM / FISTULOGRAM Prior Appointment preferred. Bring old records
    10 X - Ray Coccyx AP/Lat No Preparation.
    11 X- Ray L S Spine AP/Lat No Preparation.
    12 X-Ray Abdomen Fasting Required with bowel prepration (Dulcolax 2+ Charcoal 4 the previous night).
    14 X-Ray Chest No Preparation.
    15 X-Ray KUB Fasting Required with bowel prepration (Dulcolax 2+ Charcoal 4 the previous night).
    16 Contrast CT Head/Neck/Chest Nothing to eat or drink for 4 hours prior to the examination.
    17 Contrast CT Examination of Abdomen or Pelvis Fasting required-Nothing to eat or drink for 4 hours prior to the examination.
    18 CT Examination Without Contrast No Preparation.
    19 DEXA bone densitometry No Preparation.
    20 OPG No Preparation.

     

     


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    COLOR DOPPLER

    A Doppler ultrasound test sees how blood flows through a blood vessel. This technique requires the use of an ultrasound machine which is capable of color Doppler ultrasound.

    Uses:

    It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, neck and upper abdomen.

    It can show blocked or reduced blood flow through narrowing in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke – CAROTID DOPPLER.

    It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs – DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS.

    VARICOSE VEINS DOPPLER is also done to assess for incompetent perforators and valve competency in order to have targeted therapy.

    During pregnancy, a Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (fetus) to check the health of the fetus- PREGNANCY DOPPLER.


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    CT SCAN
    Computed Tomography (CT)
    Computed tomography (CT) imaging, also known as "CAT scanning" (Computerized Axial Tomography), provides a different form of imaging known as cross-sectional imaging. The origin of the word "tomography" is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphe" meaning "drawing." A CT imaging system produces cross-sectional images or "slices" of anatomy, like the slices in a loaf of bread.
    Computed Tomography (CT) has witnessed a change over the past 20 years. It is said that the use of CT for applications in radiological diagnosis during the 70s sparked a revolution in the field of medical engineering. Innovative scanners, advanced applications were introduced in the CT technology that brought about exciting breakthroughs in clinical procedures that helped in addressing various public health issues. In the Indian scenario, CT technology has today become an indispensable and integral component of routine work in clinical and medical practice, specifically in radio-diagnosis and procedures such as colonography, cancer detection and staging, lung analysis, angiographic studies and radiotherapy planning
    (32 slices/sec reconstruction)

    1st Prestigious Installation of 32 Slices CT by Siemens Go Now in Uttarakhand(Introduced in 2017 worldwide).

    Salient Features:
    *Excellent spatial & temporal resolution.
    *Reduced scan time.
    *Isotropic imaging possible.
    *Better multiplanar reconstructions.
    *Virtual Bronchoscopy.
    *Virtual Colonoscopy.
    *Excellent Contrast Angiography.
    *Slices as thin as 0.625 mm possible.
    *3D reconstruction of inner joint.
    *Multiphase CT for Liver, Pancreas & Kidneys.

    CT Preparation Instructions

    General Instructions

    Wear comfortable clothing free of zippers, metallic buttons as well as jewellery that could interfere with your scan. Elastic Waist Bands and Sport Bras are acceptable.
    Please notify the doctor if you have any allergy to iodine or intravenous contrast, if so you need to be pre-medicated.

    Female patients must notify if they are or think they might be pregnant, for further instructions.

    A blood test (Creatinine) is required within 6 weeks of CT examinations ordered with IV Contrast.

    Patient Screening Prior to Administration of Iodinated Contrast

    Prior to the administration of iodinated contrast, patients are screened for the following:

    Previous reactions to iodinated contrast media

    All severe allergies and reactions (both medications and food)

    History of diabetes, kidney disease, pheochromocytoma, solitary kidney, kidney or other transplant, or myeloma

    Current use of any containing medications

    For women of child-bearing age, currently or possibly pregnant or currently breast-feeding.

    Premedication Instructions for Patients with Contrast Allergies

    Contrast Administration in Patients with Elevated Creatinine

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate is a better predicator of renal dysfunction than creatinine alone. The decision to proceed with contrast administration in patients with an estimated GFR < 45 ml/min/1.732 is a matter of clinical judgment, based on the individual circumstances of the patient and following consultation between the radiologist and requesting physician. Strategies to prevent nephropathy in patients with renal impairment include hydration, reduction of contrast dose, and discontinuation of nephrotoxic drugs. A critical diagnostic study should not be delayed because of excessive concern regarding possible contrast nephropathy.

    Contrast Administration in Patients with Renal Failure

    Patients on dialysis can receive IV contrast, and early post-procedural dialysis is not routinely required; however, the fact that a patient is on dialysis should not be regarded as automatically allowing the administration IV contrast. The administration of contrast may jeopardize the return of renal function in patients who are receiving dialysis for acute renal failure and may further worsen renal function in patients who still make some urine but receive dialysis intermittently. The volume of iv contrast should also be considered in patients on dialysis who are at risk for volume overload.

    Contrast Administration in Patients Receiving 

    Diabetic Patients: If you are a diabetic patient taking any medication that contains  and are scheduled for an examination that requires IV contrast (CT, IVP) DO NOT take your medications on the day of your appointment and for 48 hours following completion of your imaging examination and reinstituted only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal.

    Vascular Access and Use of Central Lines and Ports

    IV Access for CT Studies

    The type and location of intravenous access is determined by the examination to be performed.

    A single-phase exam may be performed with hand injection via a 22G iv.

    Multiphase exams and CT angiography can only be performed with pressure injector and a 20G iv or larger is required.

    Right arm injection is preferred unless the exam is to evaluate the right upper arm arterial anatomy, in which case the left arm is used.

    Pressure injector also is not permitted through an iv that is not functioning well, i.e. has poor blood return or is difficult or painful to flush.

     Prepare a Patient for a CT

    General Instructions

    Little preparation is needed for a CT scan. Patients are asked to drink plenty of water both before and after the exam, especially if the exam is performed with oral or intravenous contrast. Patients will be asked to remove jewelry and other metallic objects that might interfere with the scan.

     

    CT Imaging Examinations General Instructions The patient should have NOTHING to eat for 4 hours prior to a CT examination. Patients may only have clear liquids (water, apple juice). Patients should take their medications at the normal time with clear liquids only. Patients should not take  the morning of the imaging study. Some patients may need to drink oral contrast. If the patient was dispensed oral contrast by the scheduling clinic, then the patient should drink the bottle 2 hours prior to their scheduled appointment. If the patient did not receive the contrast prior to his/her scheduled appointment time, then he/she must arrive in Radiology 2 hours prior to their examination time.

    CT Examination of Head/Neck/Chest – with Contrast only (No special prep necessary without contrast) Nothing to eat or drink for 4 hours prior to the examination. If the patient has allergies to contrast, then the patient or relatives should inform the team beforehand. For diabetic patients having a CT examination with IV contrast, please see the instructions above. Take all non-diabetic medications as directed. CT Examination of Pelvis – With or Without Contrast Nothing to eat or drink for 4 hours prior to the examination. Drink first bottle of contrast 2 hours prior to the examination; drink the second bottle of contrast 60 minutes prior to the examination. If the patient has allergies to contrast, then the patient or relatives should inform the team beforehand. For diabetic patients having a CT examination with IV contrast, please see the instructions above. CT Examination Without Contrast No preparation is required.

    FAQ'S
    QWhat are the dangers of CT scanning?
    Though it involves X-Ray radiations, there are no dangers in practice. Only for pregnant women, it should be done after weighing all the risks of exposing their fetus to radiations and benefits (like any other CT investigation). Dangers of contrast medium
    QWhat is a 'contrast' medium?
    A contrast is an iodinated compound injected intravenously (peripherally) to opacify the blood vessels and enhance the ability of CT scans to pick up abnormalities Only the very safest contrast (non-ionic) is used for all the patients in our centre. This gives better compliance with patients, as compared to ionic contrast, which is cheaper but, gives more adverse reactions.

    * Dangers of contrast medium
    * Though not so common, the contrast medium involved in a CT scan poses a slight risk of allergic reaction.
    * Most reactions result in hives or itchiness.
    * For individuals with asthma who become allergic to the contrast medium, the reaction can be an asthma attack
    * In very rare instances, an allergic reaction might cause swelling in your throat or other areas of your body
    * If you experience hives, itchiness or swelling in your throat during or after your CT exam, immediately tell your technologist or doctor. We keep an emergency kit for all commonly known adverse reactions.
    QWho is at 'high-risk' for contrast injection?
    * Past history of reaction to contrast/any other drugs.
    * Bronchial asthma.
    * Cardiac/kidney disease /diabetes etc.
    QOther indications your doctor may recommend a CT scan to help?
    * Diagnose muscle and bone disorders, such as bone tumors and fractures.
    * Pinpoint the location of a tumor, infection or blood clot.
    * Guide procedures such as surgery, biopsy and radiation.
    * Detect and monitor diseases such as cancer.
    * Detect internal injuries and internal bleeding.
    QWhat can you expect during a CT scan?
    During the CT scan, you lie on a narrow table that slides through the opening of a large device called the gantry. The table can be raised, lowered or tilted. Straps and pillows may help you stay in position. During a CT scan of the head, the table may be fitted with a special cradle that holds your head still.
    As the X-Ray tube rotates around your body, the table slowly moves through the gantry. While the table is moving, you may need to hold your breath to avoid blurring the images. You may hear clicking and whirring noises. Each rotation yields several images of thin slices of your body.
    During this time, a technologist in a shielded room supervises the CT scan and monitors the images as they appear on the computer screen. The technologist can see and hear you, and you can communicate via intercom.
    If an infant or small child is having the CT scan, you may be allowed to stay with your child during the test. If so, you may be asked to wear a lead apron to shield you from X-ray exposure.
    CT scans are painless. If your exam involves use of an intravenous contrast medium, you may feel a brief sensation of heat or experience a metallic taste in your mouth. If you receive contrast medium through an enema-to help highlight your lower gastrointestinal region-you may feel a sense of fullness or cramping.

    After the exam, you can return to your normal routine. If you were given a contrast medium, your doctor or the radiography staff may give you special instructions. These likely include drinking lots of fluids to help remove the medium from your body.


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    WHAT IS A CBCT

    3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging technology that allows dentists to evaluate the underlying bone structure, surrounding soft tissues and the nerve pathways. During the scan, CBCT imaging machine rotates entirely around the patient's head and captures about 150 – 200 images in a minute from different angles and compiles into a single 3D image.

    WHY DO YOU NEED CBCT

    The dentists likely recommend a CBCT scan when you are considering dental implants as it can provide a detailed picture of your nerves, bones and soft  tissues.  A single CBCT scan can show potential dental issue such as bone loss, tooth decay, facial fractures, abnormal growth, periodontal infections, irregularities of  the temporo-mandibular joint and problems with the dental pulps or tooth roots. This allows your dentist to determine if dental implants can be effectively and safely replaced.

    HOW IT WORKS

    CBCT is a latest technology which is accomplished by using a rotating gantry to which an x-ray source and detector are fixed. A divergent pyramidal or cone-shaped source of ionizing radiation is directed through the middle of the area of interest onto an area x-ray detector on the opposite side.

    ADVANTAGES OF CBCT

    There are multiple advantages of CBCT in clinical practice like lower costs, lower effective radiation doses, easier image acquisition, fewer space requirements and interactive display modes such as multiplanner reconstruction that are applicable to maxillofacial imaging. Not only that, but it also allows your dentist to identify  possible complications ahead of time so that they can take the necessary action to avoid or minimize these risks.  Overall, your implant procedure will go smoother and  you are more likely to have a successful outcome.

    PLANMECA

    Planmeca ProMax 3D Classic offers an excellent extended volume diameter size. It is ideal for capturing the full dentition with one scan and increases the maximum diameter.  Planmeca ProMax 3D Classic supports a wide range of imaging options and specialist protocols designed to meet advanced professional needs.  With a user friendly control panel, open patient positioning and easy scout imaging, the unit always offers an enjoyable user experience.

    FEATURES OF PLANMECA PROMAX 3D CLASSIC

    MOVEMENT ARTIFACT CORRECTION

    Moving patient is a significant challenge to image quality but the Planmeca ProMax 3D Classic movement correction algorithm helps to efficiently remove movement artifacts from CBCT images and succeed every time.

    THE FINEST DETAILS

    Our endodontic mode offers an extremely high resolution which is optimal for capturing even the smallest details, the mode enables precise diagnostics and treatment planning.

    ULTRA LOW DOSE IMAGING

    Planmeca ProMax 3D Classic is a unique way to capture CBCT images at patient doses comparable to or even lower than panoramic images as proven in various scientific studies. The imaging protocol can be used with all imaging modes and voxel sizes.


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